发信人: weimingyimin (未名移民), 信区: WeiMingYiMin
标 题: 美国签证收紧只会迫使雇主在海外招工
发信站: BBS 未名空间站 (Thu Aug 13 01:39:26 2020, 美东)
Employers are relocating jobs to Canada. REUTERS/CARLOS OSORIO
President Donald Trump has been trying to encourage firms to hire more
American workers by increasing restrictions on visas for skilled foreign
workers, including by suspending the H-1B visa program in June.
But a new study found that blocking out skilled labor actually encourages
companies to move jobs abroad, where they can hire locally or more easily
obtain a visa. That means more new jobs in countries like Canada, India, and
China, not in the US, as president Donald Trump has claimed.
“It’s not that a company really only has two options, which is either hire
an immigrant in the US or hire an American in the US,” said Britta Glennon
, the National Bureau of Economic Research economist who wrote the study. “
They actually have more options than that.”
Glennon looked at data from millions of H1-B applications and multinationals
’ employment in foreign countries over a 10-year period to track whether
less access to visas changed hiring practices. She found that it did,
whether it was because the US lowered its annual visa cap (as it did in 2004
,) or because visas became harder to get after US Citizenship and
Immigration Services implemented a lottery system to grant them.
When she looked at the lottery’s effects, for example, she found that for
each visa application denied, companies created the equivalent of .3 jobs
abroad, at least.
Companies in the tech sector were more likely to hire a foreign worker at
their offices outside the US. They were also more likely to place those
workers in Canada, which has less restrictive visa policies than the US, as
well as India and China, where many of the hires were from.
When USCIS denied a visa to a prestigious MBA graduate from China or India,
the company trying to hire them would often assign them to an auxiliary
office in cities like Vancouver or Toronto.
Some companies reacted by transferring entire teams or tasks abroad. “They
would say, ‘Yeah, we just decided to open up a foreign affiliate in India
because we got so tired of this whole process’.” she said.
She also saw a shift towards job candidates with master’s degrees to
increase the chances of getting them a visa—there’s an additional cap of
20,000 for H1-B visas for applicants with advanced degrees.
Though Glennon’s analysis focused on past changes to visa policies, her
research suggests the same situation is true now that US government
restrictions on foreign workers are even tighter.
By blocking immigration, the US misses out on other benefits, like new
patents, additional foreign investment, and new jobs in highly-skilled
fields, Glennon said. Research has also shown immigrants are much more
likely to start new companies compared to Americans—nearly half of Fortune
500 firms were founded by an immigrant or a child of one—and are more often
“job creators” than “job takers.”
Glennon said a better policy to help Americans get jobs would be through
additional investments in education. “Make sure that Americans have the
right set of skills,” she said. “It’s a much more sensible way to go
about this than trying to block skilled workers from other countries. The
reason why they’re getting hired is because companies can’t find Americans
to do those jobs.”
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